Ozone Disinfection of Hospital Wastewater [**]pplication

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    1. Introduction to Hospital Sewage

     Hospitals are generally divided into two categories: general hospitals and infectious disease hospitals. Hospital sewage is similar to urban fecal sewage in terms of the types and concentrations of pollutants, but not exactly the same. Because in addition to general pollutants, hospital sewage also contains some special pollutants, such as drugs, disinfectants, diagnostic agents, detergents, etc.

     Hospital sewage mainly comes from various wards, especially the sewage from various infectious wards, operating rooms, and laundry rooms. In addition to containing a large number of pathogenic microorganisms, parasite eggs such as roundworm eggs and various viruses such as hepatitis virus, tuberculosis bacteria and dysentery bacteria In addition, it also contains a large number of pollutants, of which organic substances account for about 60% of the total pollution, and insoluble substances account for about 40% of the total. Due to the precipitation of a large amount of incompatible substances such as muscle tissue, the worms with large specific gravity and their eggs, and a large number of bacteria will be deposited in the sludge together.

     In recent years, radioactive isotopes have been widely used in medical treatment. For example, these medical appliances are often washed with water. Therefore, radioactive isotopes will be contained in the flushing sewage.

     In addition, some hospitals also have affiliated pharmaceutical factories, and their drainage contains harmful substances such as acid and alkali. It can be seen that hospital sewage must be disinfected and decontaminated before being discharged into rivers.

Ozone Disinfection of Hospital Wastewater [**]pplication

     2. Treatment process selection

     The treatment method and technological process are determined according to the treatment objects, and the treatment objects include suspended solids, floating solids, organic matter, radioactive isotopes, germs, viruses, acids and bases, etc. [**]mong them, pathogens are more harmful, which are described below.

     (1) Suspended matter and floating matter
 
     Generally, septic tanks are installed at the exit of the ward. [**]fter the sewage enters the septic tank, the pollutants with a large specific gravity are precipitated and separated in the tank, and fermented and digested. During the settling process, some viruses and bacteria will also settle down, so the sludge should be treated accordingly. The effluent from the septic tank will still carry part of the floating matter and mechanical impurities into the disinfection tank, which will affect the bactericidal effect of the disinfectant. Therefore, the sewage should be fully precipitated and simply filtered before entering the disinfection tank.

    (2) Organic pollutants
 
     The organic matter in hospital sewage is generally smaller than that in urban sewage, and the BOD5 is mostly around 100 mg/L. It can be digested by the self-purification ability of the water body itself. However, if it is directly discharged into surface water bodies and scenic areas with higher requirements, the organic matter should be treated, and biological treatment is generally used.

Ozone Disinfection of Hospital Wastewater [**]pplication

     (3) Radioactive isotopes
 
     Due to the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei to produce radiation, its existence makes the sewage radioactively polluted, and it is impossible to artificially change the strength and performance of the radioactive substances in the sewage. Therefore, only dilution or concentration can be used to reduce or avoid its harm. For this kind of sewage, the treatment method can be determined according to the type of radioactive material and the length of half-life. For elements with a short half-life, use storage methods or dilution methods; for radioactive substances with long half-lives, physical, chemical or biological methods can be used to separate them from sewage first. [**]ccording to the survey, the radioactive isotopes used in general hospitals are those with short half-lives, and the amount of sewage is small, so the storage method is usually used for treatment.

     (4) Parasites
 
     Parasite eggs come from feces, and their specific gravity is higher than that of fecal sewage (about 1.02-1.04), so they can be separated from sewage by sedimentation. Generally, roundworm eggs are used as the death standard of parasites, that is, when roundworm eggs die, other eggs are considered dead. Roundworm eggs can live for 1-5 years in the outside world, but in the fermentation environment, the life span is greatly shortened. In the accumulated feces, it can live for 7 days in summer and 21 days in winter. In commonly used septic tanks, the sludge cleaning period is more than three months, and parasite eggs can completely settle in the tank and be killed in the fermentation environment.

     (5) virus
 
     Viruses are objects much smaller than bacteria. They do not have a complete cell structure and must survive and reproduce in certain living cells. 80% of human infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Viruses are generally resistant to cold and heat (but hepatitis viruses have certain resistance to heat, drying and freezing, such as hepatitis [**] heat-resistant at 56°C for more than 1 hour; type B heat-resistant at 60°C for more than 4 hours), but [**]ll viruses are sensitive to high temperature boiling and strong oxidants, so a certain concentration of chlorine can be used to inactivate them.

     (6) Infectious bacteria

     There are many types of infectious bacteria, but their activity rules are similar. Generally, they survive in the range of pH 5-9.6. When the pH exceeds this range, the bacteria will die. It can live for more than a month in clean water, but the life time in fecal sewage is shorter. This is because: a. Fecal sewage contains ammonia generated by its own decomposition, which can play a bactericidal effect; b. The decomposition of feces can also produce some sterilins to inactivate bacteria. In addition, most germs (except tetanus, which is anaerobic) are aerobic. Taking advantage of this feature, if the pool is covered and sealed, on the one hand, the decomposition of organic matter consumes a large amount of oxygen, and on the other hand, the difficulty in replenishing oxygen due to the sealing of the pool will reduce the dissolved oxygen in the sewage, resulting in the elimination of aerobic bacteria by themselves under anoxic conditions. In addition, heavy metals such as chromium and mercury exist in laboratories and inspection rooms, which can be removed by chemical methods.

     To sum up, hospital sewage is an extremely complex system, so it is difficult to achieve satisfactory results by conventional treatment methods.

     The recently developed ozone water treatment technology has been widely used in hospital sewage treatment projects and has received excellent results. This is because ozone has a stronger oxidizing ability than chlorine, bleaching powder, and chlorine dioxide, and can be 600 times faster than chlorine. - 3000 times the speed of killing all bacteria, viruses, etc. including chlorine cannot be completely killed; it can oxidize and precipitate some heavy metal ions such as Pb and Hg to achieve the purpose of separation; in addition, ozone can also reduce biochemical oxygen consumption (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite removal and decolorization, deodorization, etc. Hospital sewage treated in this way can greatly improve the discharge standard, and can even be returned as non-drinking water.

     3. Introduction to the process

     The whole process can be divided into two stages.

     [**]. Primary treatment

     Its main link is that it can be discharged into urban sewage after disinfection and sterilization, and then enter the urban sewage treatment plant for advanced treatment.

     B. Secondary treatment

     Sewage after secondary treatment can not only be sterilized and discharged, but also BOD and COD have been greatly reduced, reaching the national first-level sewage discharge standard, and can be directly discharged into water bodies.

Ozone-Generator-Industry-Market

     4. Comparison of ozone disinfection of hospital sewage and other methods
  
     1. Ozone disinfection overcomes the dangers of other methods during transportation, storage and handling.
     2. Ozone disinfection contact time is short, can improve water quality, is an excellent disinfectant.
     3. Ozone can kill viruses, spores, etc. that cannot be killed by other methods such as chlorine.
     4. Ozone disinfection is not affected by the content of ammonia and hydrogen in wastewater and the pH value.
     5. Ozone can be prepared from cheap air or oxygen as the gas source.
     6. Due to the development of electronic technology and ozone generation technology in the past year, the energy consumption of today's ozone generators has been greatly reduced, the volume has become smaller and smaller, and the operation stability has been greatly improved. The application has more and more obvious advantages.
     7. The price of ozone generators today is comparable to that of sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, chlorine dioxide generators.

     Based on the above, the application of ozone in the disinfection treatment of hospital wastewater has become an inevitable and optimal choice.
 

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    1. Introduction to Hospital Sewage

     Hospitals are generally divided into two categories: general hospitals and infectious disease hospitals. Hospital sewage is similar to urban fecal sewage in terms of the types and concentrations of pollutants, but not exactly the same. Because in addition to general pollutants, hospital sewage also contains some special pollutants, such as drugs, disinfectants, diagnostic agents, detergents, etc.

     Hospital sewage mainly comes from various wards, especially the sewage from various infectious wards, operating rooms, and laundry rooms. In addition to containing a large number of pathogenic microorganisms, parasite eggs such as roundworm eggs and various viruses such as hepatitis virus, tuberculosis bacteria and dysentery bacteria In addition, it also contains a large number of pollutants, of which organic substances account for about 60% of the total pollution, and insoluble substances account for about 40% of the total. Due to the precipitation of a large amount of incompatible substances such as muscle tissue, the worms with large specific gravity and their eggs, and a large number of bacteria will be deposited in the sludge together.

     In recent years, radioactive isotopes have been widely used in medical treatment. For example, these medical appliances are often washed with water. Therefore, radioactive isotopes will be contained in the flushing sewage.

     In addition, some hospitals also have affiliated pharmaceutical factories, and their drainage contains harmful substances such as acid and alkali. It can be seen that hospital sewage must be disinfected and decontaminated before being discharged into rivers.

Ozone Disinfection of Hospital Wastewater [**]pplication

     2. Treatment process selection

     The treatment method and technological process are determined according to the treatment objects, and the treatment objects include suspended solids, floating solids, organic matter, radioactive isotopes, germs, viruses, acids and bases, etc. [**]mong them, pathogens are more harmful, which are described below.

     (1) Suspended matter and floating matter
 
     Generally, septic tanks are installed at the exit of the ward. [**]fter the sewage enters the septic tank, the pollutants with a large specific gravity are precipitated and separated in the tank, and fermented and digested. During the settling process, some viruses and bacteria will also settle down, so the sludge should be treated accordingly. The effluent from the septic tank will still carry part of the floating matter and mechanical impurities into the disinfection tank, which will affect the bactericidal effect of the disinfectant. Therefore, the sewage should be fully precipitated and simply filtered before entering the disinfection tank.

    (2) Organic pollutants
 
     The organic matter in hospital sewage is generally smaller than that in urban sewage, and the BOD5 is mostly around 100 mg/L. It can be digested by the self-purification ability of the water body itself. However, if it is directly discharged into surface water bodies and scenic areas with higher requirements, the organic matter should be treated, and biological treatment is generally used.

Ozone Disinfection of Hospital Wastewater [**]pplication

     (3) Radioactive isotopes
 
     Due to the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei to produce radiation, its existence makes the sewage radioactively polluted, and it is impossible to artificially change the strength and performance of the radioactive substances in the sewage. Therefore, only dilution or concentration can be used to reduce or avoid its harm. For this kind of sewage, the treatment method can be determined according to the type of radioactive material and the length of half-life. For elements with a short half-life, use storage methods or dilution methods; for radioactive substances with long half-lives, physical, chemical or biological methods can be used to separate them from sewage first. [**]ccording to the survey, the radioactive isotopes used in general hospitals are those with short half-lives, and the amount of sewage is small, so the storage method is usually used for treatment.

     (4) Parasites
 
     Parasite eggs come from feces, and their specific gravity is higher than that of fecal sewage (about 1.02-1.04), so they can be separated from sewage by sedimentation. Generally, roundworm eggs are used as the death standard of parasites, that is, when roundworm eggs die, other eggs are considered dead. Roundworm eggs can live for 1-5 years in the outside world, but in the fermentation environment, the life span is greatly shortened. In the accumulated feces, it can live for 7 days in summer and 21 days in winter. In commonly used septic tanks, the sludge cleaning period is more than three months, and parasite eggs can completely settle in the tank and be killed in the fermentation environment.

     (5) virus
 
     Viruses are objects much smaller than bacteria. They do not have a complete cell structure and must survive and reproduce in certain living cells. 80% of human infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Viruses are generally resistant to cold and heat (but hepatitis viruses have certain resistance to heat, drying and freezing, such as hepatitis [**] heat-resistant at 56°C for more than 1 hour; type B heat-resistant at 60°C for more than 4 hours), but [**]ll viruses are sensitive to high temperature boiling and strong oxidants, so a certain concentration of chlorine can be used to inactivate them.

     (6) Infectious bacteria

     There are many types of infectious bacteria, but their activity rules are similar. Generally, they survive in the range of pH 5-9.6. When the pH exceeds this range, the bacteria will die. It can live for more than a month in clean water, but the life time in fecal sewage is shorter. This is because: a. Fecal sewage contains ammonia generated by its own decomposition, which can play a bactericidal effect; b. The decomposition of feces can also produce some sterilins to inactivate bacteria. In addition, most germs (except tetanus, which is anaerobic) are aerobic. Taking advantage of this feature, if the pool is covered and sealed, on the one hand, the decomposition of organic matter consumes a large amount of oxygen, and on the other hand, the difficulty in replenishing oxygen due to the sealing of the pool will reduce the dissolved oxygen in the sewage, resulting in the elimination of aerobic bacteria by themselves under anoxic conditions. In addition, heavy metals such as chromium and mercury exist in laboratories and inspection rooms, which can be removed by chemical methods.

     To sum up, hospital sewage is an extremely complex system, so it is difficult to achieve satisfactory results by conventional treatment methods.

     The recently developed ozone water treatment technology has been widely used in hospital sewage treatment projects and has received excellent results. This is because ozone has a stronger oxidizing ability than chlorine, bleaching powder, and chlorine dioxide, and can be 600 times faster than chlorine. - 3000 times the speed of killing all bacteria, viruses, etc. including chlorine cannot be completely killed; it can oxidize and precipitate some heavy metal ions such as Pb and Hg to achieve the purpose of separation; in addition, ozone can also reduce biochemical oxygen consumption (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite removal and decolorization, deodorization, etc. Hospital sewage treated in this way can greatly improve the discharge standard, and can even be returned as non-drinking water.

     3. Introduction to the process

     The whole process can be divided into two stages.

     [**]. Primary treatment

     Its main link is that it can be discharged into urban sewage after disinfection and sterilization, and then enter the urban sewage treatment plant for advanced treatment.

     B. Secondary treatment

     Sewage after secondary treatment can not only be sterilized and discharged, but also BOD and COD have been greatly reduced, reaching the national first-level sewage discharge standard, and can be directly discharged into water bodies.

Ozone-Generator-Industry-Market

     4. Comparison of ozone disinfection of hospital sewage and other methods
  
     1. Ozone disinfection overcomes the dangers of other methods during transportation, storage and handling.
     2. Ozone disinfection contact time is short, can improve water quality, is an excellent disinfectant.
     3. Ozone can kill viruses, spores, etc. that cannot be killed by other methods such as chlorine.
     4. Ozone disinfection is not affected by the content of ammonia and hydrogen in wastewater and the pH value.
     5. Ozone can be prepared from cheap air or oxygen as the gas source.
     6. Due to the development of electronic technology and ozone generation technology in the past year, the energy consumption of today's ozone generators has been greatly reduced, the volume has become smaller and smaller, and the operation stability has been greatly improved. The application has more and more obvious advantages.
     7. The price of ozone generators today is comparable to that of sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, chlorine dioxide generators.

     Based on the above, the application of ozone in the disinfection treatment of hospital wastewater has become an inevitable and optimal choice.
 

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